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2007 Unit D


Grade level: Elementary
Discipline: Visual Arts

Teacher name
Email address
School or District
Heidi Charlton
hcharlton@avsd.k12.pa.us
Colfax Elementary/Acmetonia Primary
Linda Johnson
johnsonart320@yahoo.com
Good Shepherd/Gate of Heaven
John Gamble
jgamble408@comcast.net
Greencastle-Antrim Primary School
Donna Hill Chaney
dhillchaney@kasd.org
Kutztown Elementary School
Brooke Manz
manzb@basd.k12.pa.us
College Square Elementary School

Title of unit: Architectural differences between Pennsylvania and Japan
Overview: The students will explore the purpose of architects by designing buildings that reflect the cultures of America and Japan. With this information the students will assume the role of an architect. They will discover and explore qualities of American and Japanese architecture. They will draw and design a Japanese- American Cultural Center for their community incorporating both the elements of American and Japanese architecture.
Time needed to complete the unit: 5-7 weeks

Essential learning(s):
Summative task: The students will be given the summative task of assuming the role of an architect. The students will create a drawing of a Japanese-American Cultural Center that combines Japanese and American architectual styles for their community. Assesment will be implemented in a group critique of the drawings at the end of the project. Teacher will also review assessment rubric on an individualize basis.

PA Academic Standards
Content Indicators
(What students will know)
Process Indicators
(What students will do to demonstrate knowledge of the content)
(1) 9.1.3.E Recognize and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms.

(2)9.2.3.G Relate works in the arts to geographic regions: Africa, Asia, Australia, Central America, Europe, North America and South America.

(3)9.3.3.F Know how to recognize and identify similar and different characteristics among works in the arts.

(4)9.4.3.B Know how to communicate an informed individual opinion about the meaning of works in the arts.

(5)M3.C.1.1.1 Name/identify/describe geometric shapes in two dimensions (circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

(6)R3.A.2.1.2 Identify and/ or interpret meaning of content-specific words used in text.
(1A)The students will know that basic shapes (square, rectangle, triangle, and circle) are used in architectural construction and basic design.
(1B)The students will understand the terms of form and function in relationship to architecture.

(2)The students will know the differences between the size, location, and population of the United States and Japan.

(3) The students will know the differences between American and Japanese Architecture: styles, designs, materials, form, and function.

(4A)The students will understand the term aesthetics.
(4B)The students will understand that some buildings are works of art.

(5A) The students will understand differences between geometric shapes and know the names of geometric shapes.
(5B) The students will know the difference in the shapes used in the architecture of both cultures.

(6) The students will know the simple vocabulary related to unique historical architecture.
(1A)The students will define and trace each of the four shapes in the facades with a different color for each shape on the architectural handouts.
(1B) The students will be able to describe the function of a given building.

(2)The students will investigate a chart of factual information then respond to oral questions of the teacher using a colored card to indicate answers.

(3)The students will view images of Japanese and American architecture and identify style, design, material, form, and function within the structures .

(4A) The students will conclude that aesthetics questions have no single correct response. The discussion will demonstrate that aesthetics as a philosophy is open ended.
(4B)The question" What makes a building a work of Art?" will be explored. Verbal responses will be given by students.

(5A) The students will identify and highlight the different geometric shapes using two architectural images, one American and one Japanese.
(5B) They will apply their acquired knowledge of geometric shapes to create a sketch of both American and Japanese Architecture.

(6) They will choose four vocabulary words from the text and label them on the correlating shapes within the two architectural images.

Teacher materials needed:
Transparencies
Intergrated technology: computer, overhead projector, printer, Ipod, video
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_architecture, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_architecture,
Book: First Thousand Words in Japanese
by Heather Amery (Author), Stephen Cartwright (Author, Illustrator), Patrizia Di Bello (Author)
www.postalmuseum.si.edu/.../BIGfallingwater.htm
www.andrew.cmu.edu/.../docs/fallingwater.html
www.explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?img...
www.galenfrysinger.com/philadelphia_architect...
markb-photo.que.jp/gallery/index-0001.html
www.japaneseguesthouses.com/guides/index.htm
teacher generated handouts
Posters
Student materials needed:
Construction paper
Pencils
Colored pencils
Glue
Scissors
Rulers
Markers
Computer
Drawing paper
Teacher generated handouts
Images of Japanese and American buildings
Books
List of vocabulary words

Unit vocabulary: shape,circle, triangle, square, rectangle, roof, window, door, porch, Japan, culture, architecture, architect, aesthetics, form, function, elements, shoji, hogyo sori, engawa
Unit warm-up: N/A
Assessing Prior Knowledge: Students will be assessed for prior knowledge through brainstorming activities and open class discussion. They will also be asked to relate previous knowledge of geometric shapes through identifications of architectural forms.

Lesson 1


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Introduction of Japanese Culture and how it contrasts to Western Culture
Teacher will introduce Japan in contrast to the United States in regard to geographic, population, and regional differences by using handouts and integrated technology. Cultural difference will be combined using multi-media devices demonstrating differences in celebrations and traditions. Architectural comparisons will be introduced and labled to assess prior knowledge. Students will create a folder for the unit and illustrate it using any elements of Japanese influence that they have found intriguing. This will serve as a visual journal throughout the unit. Formative assessment of lesson will occur by the teacher verbalizing questions and the student responding with colored paper that correspond with answers.
Formative assessment of lesson will occur by teacher verbalizing questions and the student responding with colored paper that correspond with answers.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Autism: Visual and auditory task with pictograms to help with the definitions of vocabulary

Deaf / Blind: Emboss images with Braille so that definition of architectural differences can be felt.

Deaf: Address student by placing yourself directly in their line of vision so that he/sho may interpret architectural definition effectively.

Hearing Impairment: (Use of ipod) Speakers from auditory equipment placed on wooden or non-carpeted surface so that vibrations from music can be felt while they are viewing pod casts on Japanese culture.
Students will be provided with a handout for the lesson with the appropriate architectural terms with definitions in both English and the second language with visual images of the terms where applicable.
The handout will afford the students a resource to review terms when needed and to assist with their language acquisition. The second language would be determined by the needs of each individual student.
Pre-recorded second language directions and podcast translations will be available for students who need them.
Students will write a letter to a local architectural firm asking the architects for their opinion of what defines an artistic building and how it differs from one that is purely functional. / Students will be afforded additional time to confer with the teacher for clarification of architectural terms, design, and project objectives and personal processing of information. Students will be provided additional time to complete assigned tasks and projects.

Lesson 2


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Definition of architecture and characteristics associated with this characteristic art form
The students will participate in an assimilated activity of theatrically portraying buildings while feeling the effects of wind blowing across their surfaces, through the use of fans, while listening to Japanese flute music.
The role of an architect and definitiions of vocabulary terms associated with the field of study will be identified. A review of differences in Western versus Japanese Culture from the prior lesson will be readdressed and established. Prior knowledge of shape recognition will be established. Explanitation of architectural vocabulary will be introduced in relation to the construction of buildings. Explanation of the rubric that will be used to assess the unit will be explained at this point. This is so that the learner is informed of required to reach a proficient level of achievement. Formative assessment will be conducted as a class. Students will identify shapes within an architectural example that has been projected. Teacher will model this skill by drawing the shapes on the projected image. They will use four different colored markers that reflect the four shapes that are being focused upon in the lesson. As a conclusion to the lesson, students will work independently on individualized tasks using a photocopy of an architectural image. They will use markers to identify shapes as demonstrated in previous group activity.
Formative assessment will be conducted as a class. Students will identify shapes within an architectural example that has been projected. They will use four different colored markers that reflect the four shapes that are being focused upon in the lesson. As a conclusion to the lesson, students will work independently on individualized tasks using a photocopy of an architectural image. They will use markers to identify shapes as demonstrated in previous group activity. Teacher will collect and assess student work outside of class, then return to the student's folder.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Mental Retardation: Reduce the number and select simple shapes for performance tasks regarding the highlighting of forms throughout the visual image

Multiple Disabilities: (Cerebral Palsy and Mild Mental Retardation): Have the student place manipulative on handout on specialized tray or tabletop (shape on shape) in regard to the performance task of highlighting shape in the architecture.

Orthopedic Impairment: Abbreviate the number of shape recognition and place simple “X” marks on designated shapes that are on the handouts
The students will refer to prior handouts which have prompting words in students' language (for review of terms) which will be stored in their folders for the duration of the unit.
Books about architecture and Japanese culture will be available to provide additional information for individual research. Participating students will be given the option of selecting a topic for further investigation adding to the depth of their knowledge. Students would also be afforded the opportunity to incorporate the details from newly acquired knowledge into their artworks. / Students will be given additional time to confer with the teacher for clarification of architectural terms, design, project objectives, and personal processing of information. Students will be provided additional time to complete assigned tasks and projects.

Lesson 3


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Introduction of function compared to form in architecture
The learner will review the assignment from the prior lesson of shape definition in architecture to refresh learning goals. The teacher will then ask the students to “brainstorm” about what happens in the buildings that they have been studying. The teacher will ask the learner what function the building might serve. The teacher will help students decide if the forms of a building help to determine their function. As a model of formative assessment the students will then be required to make a quick sketch of a building based upon a function of their choosing that incorporates geometric forms (shapes). As a class, the learners will decide the function of the architecture that have been designed. This will be added to the unit folder that was made during the first lesson.
For formative assessment the students will be required to make a quick sketch of a building based upon a function of their choosing that incorporates geometric forms (shapes).
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Speech / Language: Provide storyboard that depicts the metamorphosis of the American and Japanese architecture. Also, provide a white board for communication between teacher and other students,

Traumatic Brain Injury: Provide additional performance task time to allow student to complete final metamorphosis of the cultural center.

Visual Impairment: For performance task the student will use double the designated paper size and manipulate materials that create high contrast for drawing the culture center.
The students will refer to prior handouts (for reivew of terms) which will be stored in their folders for the duration of the unit.
Students will be given the opportunity to add value and shading to their geometric shapes to develop the illusion of depth. Students will be afforded additional time to confer with the teacher for clarification of architectural terms, design, and project objectives and personal processing of information. Students will be provided additional time to complete assigned tasks and projects.

Lesson 4


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Implementation of “ rich task” – Application of function and form to Individualized architectural designs
The learner will review the functions and forms of architecture discussed and demonstrated in prior lessons. The teacher will introduce the “rich” performance task to students. The performance task will be asking the students to assume the role of an architect. In this role, they are to imagine that a Japanese –American Cultural Center is being built in their community and they have been given the task of designing what the building will look like and determining its function. They will need to incorporate architectural elements from both cultures. Students will be supplied with various examples (teacher generated handout ) of Japanese and American architecture at their seats from which they can develop ideas. After the assignment has been explained, the teacher will conduct a brief demonstration of how some architectural elements could potentially be morphed together. This is accomplished using various forms of technology depending upon availability in the classroom. This lesson will take two class periods for completion of task.
The students will be given the summative task of assuming the role of an architect. The students will create a drawing of a Japanese-American Cultural Center that combines Japanese and American architectual styles for their community. Assesment will be implemented in a group critique of the drawings at the end of the project. Teacher will also review assessment rubric on an individualized basis.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Developmental Receptive Language Disorder: Pre-set student by means of a brief conversation before lesson about form and function in architecture to allow for additional processing time.

Other Health Impairment (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome): Refocus attention using a rest break to stand, stretch, and move. This will occur between comparison of cultures and the quick sketch of building.

Serious Emotional Disturbance: Use external stimuli to refocus attention. This could be the ringing of a bell to signal the shift from defining form and function and the task of identifying them in architecture.
The students will refer to prior handouts (for review of terms) which will be stored in their folders for the duration of the unit.
Students would be encouraged to develop meaningful questions related to aesthetics of architecture. / Students will be afforded additional time to confer with the teacher for clarification of architectural terms, design, and project objectives and personal processing of information. Students will be provided additional time to complete assigned tasks and projects.

Lesson 5


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Defining Aesthetics in Architecture and Applying it to Personal Designs
The teacher will introduce aesthetics and the definition it encompasses in the field of art. It will then be applied through the teacher’s lecture to the architectural forms that have been used for examples. Class discussion will include questions about whether architecture is should be considered an art form? In addition, the learners will be asked if the function of a building determines if it can be simultaneously pleasing in form and aesthetics. The students will be divided into five small groups. A representative from each of group will post his/her work so the class can discuss the form, function, and aesthetic qualities. Designs will be displayed in school for culminating annual art show that invites the community to be a part of the learning process. Final assessment is conducted using a rubric that was introduced at the onset of the unit.
Throughout the production procress teacher will conference with indiviual students on a needs basis.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Other Health Impairments (Chronic Pain): Allow breaks between aesthetics discussion and drawing activity. Rest will help reduce the potential for pain.

Learning Disability: Hands on activity for assessing aesthetic judgment by means of learner placing colored tags that designate feelings on selected artwork.

Social Emotional Disorder: Use predetermined non-verbal cues to refocus the student to stay on task regarding class discussion about aesthetics.
The students will refer to prior handouts (for review of terms) which will be stored in their folders for the duration of the unit.
The students will differentiate between shape and form, labeling them according to provided vocabulary (example: square and cube)./ Students could engage in a pre-class or post-class discussion with the teacher for further explanation.



Rubric


Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
Use of architectural styles of both Japan and America
Exhibits skillful combination in architectural styles of Japanese and American culture in the drawing.
Exhibits a combined architectural style of Japanese and American culture in the drawing.
Exhibits limited skill in combining architectural styles of Japanese and American culture in the drawing.
Exhibits poor skills of combination in architectural styles of Japanese and American culture in the drawing.
Knowledge of form and function within American and Japanese Styles
Displays a skillful combination between form and function in the drawing of the Japanese-American Culture Center which is consistently evident.
Displays a combination of form and function in the drawing of the Japanese-American Culture Center which is consistently evident.
Displays little evidence of a combination of form and function in the drawing of the Japanese-American Culture Center.
Displays no evidence of a combination of form and function in the drawing of the Japanese-American Culture Center.
Detail in drawing of the Japanese-American Cultural Center
Demonstrates exceptional detail in the drawing of the Japanese-American Cultural Center.
Demonstrates significant detail in the drawing of the Japanese-American Cultural Center.
Demonstrates a little detail in the drawing of the Japanese-American Cultural Center.
Demonstrates no detail in the drawing of the Japanese-American Cultural Center.


Unit accommodations for students not proficient on summative task: The teacher will use clear transparencies over the students’ drawings to help identify geometric shapes and suggest needed improve. Students will be given additional time to incorporate suggestions into their drawings.
Unit enrichments: The teacher will supply students with a prepared template of geometric shapes to assist them in successfully completing their drawings.

Student Work Samples and Teacher Reflection


Linda Johnson - I found this to be a very difficult unit of study with the second grade level , so I changed it to 5th grade level. That was hard for me also. Having been a high school teacher for 17 years and now teaching young students was enough of a challenge in itself. I met with the students once a week for 40 minutes and to me that just wasn‘t enough time. The students loved the idea of the project but I was uncomfortable. I had a very hard time with the skill level because I was use to high school and I found myself being very frustrated. I must say though that I was pleasantly surprised that the fifth graders just loved the Japanese music. Each class they would ask for the music to be played while they worked. I found that some students enjoyed doing research on the computer about the architecture and the Japanese culture. The I Pod was a great help and hit. I passed it around the room and they watched the pod casts at their leisure. It was amusing to find some of the students adding gift shops to their buildings. They have obviously been to most of our tourist attractions.
Students found themselves pointing out the fact that they added shoji screens in their buildings and walkways over gardens. I was happy they remembered architectural parts of the buildings. I believe color choices also reflected some of the Japanese influence. The addition of flags and lanterns was nice to see and the use of Pennsylvania stone. As students researched on the classroom computer we found ourselves discussing the fact that Frank Lloyd Wright actually built a building in Japan. That got us looking and talking about his work and the Japanese. I found myself doing even more research than I was initially planning on doing and enjoying it.
I would like to try this again only have them do a three dimensional piece. The students asked for that right from the beginning. I think they had a good idea with that. I would like to see Japanese gardens added to the 3-D piece. I still need to get more comfortable with work of elementary students.

Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
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Donna Hill Chaney - I enjoyed the enthusiastic responses of my second grade students to this Japanese Architectural unit. Their enjoyment of traditional Japanese music, videos of dancing geishas and Kabuki Theater was obvious. They were eager to learn about the culture and architecture of Japan. However, I discovered that second graders have difficulty in synthesizing architectural features from diverse cultures. While this lesson was a wonderful learning experience for my students it left them frustrated with their finished drawings, most students simply could not align their concepts or ideas with their physical dexterity to control the materials.

Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
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Brooke Manz - This unit of study on Asian Architecture was a wonderful and enjoyable experience for my second graders. In addition to discussing the functions and forms of architecture, I invited them to really use their creativity in embellishing upon their architectural designs. I had them pretend that they had 10 million dollars to design an Asian Temple and could use whatever materials they wanted to build it (.e. gold, silver, jade, rubies). If I could change the materials used I would have probably chosen crayon watercolor resist instead of the colored pencil and sharpie due to the amount of time it took all students to finish. The flute music was a true hit and they really seemed to concentrate on a higher level while it was playing.

Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
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