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2007 Unit


Grade level: Intermediate
Discipline: General Music

Teacher name
Email address
School or District
Melissa Douglas
mdouglas@stbernardlc.org
Diocese of Greensburg
Meriann Lee
leem@plsd.k12.pa.us
Purchase Line School District
Kathryn Mazurek
kmazurek@tulpehocken.org
Tulpehocken Area School District
Erin Smith
smitheri@chambersburg.k12.pa.us
Chambersburg Area Middle School
Christina Trout
s_cetrout@clarion.edu
Brockway Area School District

Title of unit: Densetsu & Ongaku: An exploration of self-worth through musical improvisation and composition
Overview:
After reading the ancient Japanese legend of "The Stonecutter," the students will discuss the presented concept of self worth and its application to their own situation. Based upon this concept of self worth, each student will write a haiku about his/her own self worth. The students will then combine the legend's main concept with the rhythms created through the writing of the haiku to create a musical presentation. This presentation will be performed on Orff instruments and based on a pentatonic scale. Along with the created music, the students will also perform added movement related to the concepts presented in "The Stonecutter." (This unit is intended for a grade 6 general music class, but can be adapted for grades 5 and 7.)
Time needed to complete the unit: Eight 35 minute sessions

Essential learning(s):
Summative task:
The students, in groups, will perform student created works of music and movement based on the ancient Japanese legend "The Stonecutter." For scoring, see rubric. A checklist will be administered for individual scoring of participation.


PA Academic Standards
Content Indicators (What students will know)
Process Indicators (Will students will do to demonstrate knowledge of the content)
1) 9.1.5 B Recognize, know, use, and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce, review and revise original works in the arts.


2) 9.1.5.E
Know and demonstrate how arts can communicate experiences, stories or emotions through the production of works in the arts.



3)9.2.5.G
Relate works in the arts to geographic regions.


4) 9.3.5.B
Describe works in the arts comparing similar and contrasting characteristics.



5) M6.D.1.2.1
Determine a rule based on a pattern or illustrate a pattern based on a given rule (displayed on a table, chart or graph; pattern must show at least 3 repetitions).


6) R6.A.1.4.1
Identify and/or explain stated or implied main ideas and relevant supporting details from text.


7) R6.B.3.3.3
Interpret graphics and charts and/or make connections between text and content of graphics and charts.
1) The pentatonic scale is an element in Japanese folk music that can be used to create original works.



2a) A Japanese folk tale can communicate emotions.

2b) Self worth concepts are portrayed in Japanese folk lore.

2c) Movement can communicate the main idea of a story and/or emotion.



3) Various pieces of folk music from the Japanese region.



4a) Likenesses and differences between folk music from the United States and Japan.

4b) Likenesses and differences between instruments utilized in folk music from the United States and Japan.


5) Mathematical patterns are evident within Japanese Haiku.



6) Main idea, leading details and events within “The Stone Cutter.”



7) A Venn Diagram can help demonstrate common and unique characteristics of Western and Japanese instruments.
1) After listening to an example of Japanese folk music using the pentatonic scale, the students will employ the use of the pentatonic scale by singing a Japanese folk song and then playing the scale on an Orff instrument. They will then create improvised melodies based on the pentatonic scale utilizing Orff instruments.


2a) Students will observe a web-based video performance of “The Stone Cutter” and will identify emotions and feelings portrayed in the video. Students will then be asked to read the legend using their own emotions and feelings.

2b) Students will discuss the legend of “The Stone Cutter” in regards to the self worth concepts that are portrayed in the legend. They will then identify how these concepts are the same as or different from concepts of their own individual self worth.

2c) The students will
improvise movement to Japanese music and then create movement to interpret the emotion and legend of "The Stonecutter."


3) The students will listen to and watch various musical performances demonstrating folk music from Japan. Students will also perform a Japanese folk song.


4a) Students will listen to and/or watch examples of American and Japanese folk music. They will then be asked to discuss the similarities and differences that they heard within the given examples.

4b) Students will listen to and/or watch examples of American and Japanese folk music. They will then discuss the instruments that were heard and decipher the similarities and differences between their sound and use.


5) The student will use patterns and sequences of rhythm from the Haiku to create improvised melodies on Orff instruments.



6) The student will read, listen to, and discuss the story and discover the main idea and leading details and events within “The Stone Cutter.”



7) Students will create and discuss a Venn Diagram showing similarities and differences between Japanese and Western instruments.

Teacher materials needed:
iPod
TV/VCR/DVD
projector
CD player/stereo system
Story "The Stonecutter" and video clip
story- http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/japan.html#stonecutter
http://www.apples4theteacher.com/holidays/labor-day/short-stories/hofus-the-stone-
cutter
video- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5MOcLtEUD4A
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHQsh_PJFyg
Orff Instrument
mallets
map
examples of Venn Diagram and Haiku
Student materials needed:
paper
pencils
Orff Instruments
mallets
copy of "The Stonecutter"
Venn Diagram

Unit vocabulary:
haiku
improvisation
pentatonic scale
legend
folk (music and dance)
self worth
rubric
Venn Diagram
Densetsu (Legend)
Ongaku (Music)
Unit warm-up: None identified
Assessing Prior Knowledge:
Students will be assessed on prior knowledge of Japan, folk songs, and legends through discussion. Through observation students will also be assessed on their knowledge of how to play Orff instruments and sing using proper technique.


Lesson 1


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Introduction to Japanese folk music
Students listen to a piece of Japanese folk music and try to guess its origin.

Locate Japan on a map.

Reply piece of Japanese folk music and follow with an example of an American folk song.

Compare and contrast musical elements of the two songs.

Introduce various traditional Japanese instruments that are commonly used in folk music.

Listen to/watch sound or video clips of these instruments.

Create a Venn diagram in small groups illustrating similarities and differences, i.e. timbre or construction, of Japanese instruments and instruments used in Western music. Discuss the results of the activity as a class.
Participation in oral discussion about similarities/differences between American and Japanese folk music, including instruments.

Participation in group work on Venn diagram, mapping similarities and differences between Western and Japanese instruments.

Teacher observation of students working within their groups.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
May use an enlarged map (Visual Impairment)

Guided questioning (LS)

Optimize student's position in the room for enhanced listening or viewing. An individual amplification system may be used. (Hearing & Visual Impairment)

Small group work to enhance peer remediation (LS)
Small group work to enhance cooperative learning. Pair with another ELL and an English-speaking student.
Provide the opportunity to create an example of a Japanese instruments.

Select a third country to add to the folk music comparison activity.



Lesson 2


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Introduction to the pentatonic scale
Play an example of a song that uses the pentatonic scale.

Guide students to play the pentatonic scale on diatonic Orff instruments.

Students sing a pentatonic scale using syllables and/or numbers.

Students sing, from notation, a Japanese folk song that utilizes the pentatonic scale.
Teacher observation of performance of pentatonic scale through various activities.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Remove non-pentatonic bars from keyboard instruments (LS, ADD, Multiple Disabilities)

Enlarge copy of the folk song (Visual Impairment, ADD)

Copy of song with reversed polarity - white notes on black page (Dyslexia, Visual Impairment)
Peer partner
Compare and contrast the Western major scale to the pentatonic scale.

Explore additional pentatonic scale forms and build several of these scales using the same starting pitch.


Lesson 3


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
"The Stone Cutter" and haiku
Students read "The Stone Cutter".

Discuss the story and its concept of self worth.

Explain and discuss the construction of a haiku by looking at examples and creating original haiku.

Discuss the ways that people express themselves through movement. Allow students to explore movement that could be used to illustrate the idea of self worth.

Write a haiku about self worth.
Student participation in class discussion and movement activities

Written haiku
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Draw haiku in pictures instead of writing (LS, Multiple Disabilities, ES)

Large print copy of "The Stone Cutter" (Visual Impairment, LS)

Highlight alternating lines of text in story (ADHD, Visual Impairment, ADD, Dyslexia, Autism)

Braille copies of story (Visual Impairment)

Peer/teacher coaching (LS)

Discuss vocabulary words before introducing the story (LS)
Have a translated copy of "The Stone Cutter" available

Discuss vocabulary words before introducing the story
Give students a copy of the story in Japanese character writing. Ask students to write their haiku in a way that mimics the look of this version of the story.

Provide an opportunity for students to read "A Color of His Own" by Leo Lionni or "The Mixed Up Chameleon" by Eric Carle to a younger group of students. Then ask the students to create a video or classroom presentation that compares the concept of self worth presented in "The Stone Cutter" with the concept as it is presented in one of these other works.


Lesson 4


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Haiku extensions and rhythmic transfer
Review haiku composition and expressive qualities of the haiku, paying special attention to any rhythm or movement that may be implied.

Guide students to transfer the rhythm of their haiku to body percussion. Practice this movement until comfortable.

Transfer the rhythm to Orff keyboard instruments using one note.
Teacher observation or self assessment of ability to transfer rhythm from written haiku to body percussion and instruments.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Repetition of smaller sections of the haiku (LS, ADD, Multiple Disabilities, Speech and Language Disability, Autism

Echo-clap rhythm patterns prior to transfer to body percussion (LS, Multiple Disabilities, ADD)

Keep steady beat for student (LS, ADHD, Multiple Disabilities)
Repetition of smaller sections of the haiku

Work with a partner
Create rhythmic improvisation to expand upon the rhythm of the haiku

Add his/her rhythm to another student's rhythm to create layers. Add auxiliary percussion.



Lesson 5


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Improvisation with pentatonic scale and haiku
Review the pentatonic scale.

Using the pentatonic scale, improvise a sample melody using Orff keyboard instruments.

Have students practice improvisation using the pentatonic scale.

Review the rhythms that students created previously using their haikus.

Using the rhythm of the haiku and the pentatonic scale, ask students to improvise a melody on Orff keyboard instruments.
Teacher observation, self assessment and peer feedback of improvisation
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Repetition of smaller sections of haiku (LS, ADD, Multiple Disabilities, Speech and Language Disability, Autism)

Tap rhythmic pattern on student's shoulder while he/she plays (ADHD, LS, Multiple Disabilities)

Keep steady beat for student (LS, ADHD, Multiple Disabilities)

Assign student to play rhythm on one note (LS, Visual Impairment, Multiple Disabilities, Physical/Orthopedic Disability)

Add expanded rhythmic improvisation to melody.

Students notate composition.


Lesson 6


Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Movement
Brainstorm how students might use movement to tell a story and express emotion.

Students improvise movement to Japanese folk music.

Ask students to give ideas about how they can add movement to their improvised pieces.

Present and discuss rubric that will be used to score final project.

Allow students to form groups and work on projects. Practice may take more than one class period.
Peer conferencing to add movement to improvised pieces

Teacher observation of group work
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Adapted rubric (All disabilities as needed)

Highlight important details in rubric and/or color code rubric (Dyslexia, LS, Multiple Disabilities, Autism)

Allow repetitive movement (LS, Multiple Disabilities)

Movement is created from one line of haiku (Autism, LS, Multiple Disabilities)
Highlight important details in rubric
Learn and perform a Japanese folk dance

Encourage students to explore alternative movements, scales and haiku rhythms to change the mood of their piece.


Lesson 7

Topic
Instruction
Formative Assessment
Final group performance
Groups perform for the class
Summative assessment - see rubric
Accommodations for Special Learners
Accommodations for ELLs
Enrichment for gifted learners
Adapted rubric as needed

Shorter performance (LS, Multiple Disabilities, ES)

Perform rhythm on a single note (Visual Impairment, Multiple Disabilities, LS)

Students may perform outside of class at another event

Create a poster or presentation to enhance the performance



Unit accommodations for students not proficient on summative task:
Not available
Unit enrichments:
Encourage students to look at music from other places, focusing on music that uses a pentatonic scale.


Rubric




Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
Expression
Movement and music are vividly used to reflect emotion appropriate to "The Stone Cutter".
Movement and music are skillfully used to reflect emotion appropriate to "The Stone Cutter".
Movement and music are used to reflect emotion appropriate to "The Stone Cutter".
Movement and music are limited in reflecting emotion appropriate to "The Stone Cutter".
Rhythm
Used a repeated 5-7-5 syllabic rhythm pattern from the haiku; rhythm pattern remained consistently steady throughout the entire performance.
Used a repeated 5-7-5 syllabic rhythm pattern from the haiku; rhythm pattern remained steady through most of the performance.
Used a repeated 5-7-5 syllabic rhythm pattern from the haiku in the performance.
Used a rhythm pattern unrelated to the haiku in the performance.
Pentatonic Scale
The tones of the pentatonic scale were used in complex sequences.
The tones of the pentatonic scale were used.
Some of the tones were from the pentatonic scale.
Use of the pentatonic was limited.



Student Work Samples and Teacher Reflection


Meriann Lee

Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
Lee_Advanced_example.jpg
Lee_Proficient_example.jpg
Lee_basic_example.jpg
Not available