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2007 Unit J


Grade level: High School
Discipline: General music

Teacher name
Email address
School or District
Alisha Hall
ahall@brockway.k12.pa.us
Brockway Area High School
Sister Lauretta Linsalata
llinsalata@archbishopryan.com
Archbishop Ryan High School
Scott Meier
smeier@mercyhurst.edu
Mercyhurst College
Michael Miele
mmiele32@mercyhurst.edu
Mercyhurst College
Zachary Pelton
Zpelton@gmail.com
Mercyhurst College

Title of unit: Traditional Japanese Music
Overview: In this high school general music unit, students are asked to discover the philosophical meaning behind the Japanese major pentatonic scale which is rooted in the Taoist (Wu Hsing) philosophy of the Edo period. The primary folk song example used to illustrate this genre is Sakura. After an introduction to Japanese music and history of the Edo period, the students will create a composition using the pentatonic scale while documenting the process with a personal journal. Realizing that critical analysis is an essential component to the arts, peer-created and instructor-led evaluation is fostered and used to grade the final project. After synthesizing the ideas, the students will create a multi-media presentation combining a multi-media presentation of collected or original Japanese art with their original composition.
Time needed to complete the unit: 2 weeks

Essential learning(s): Philosophy and music have elements directly related to and influenced by each other.
Summative task: The students will produce a multi-media presentation that contains an original composition based on traditional Japanese music combined with other visual media relating to or inspired by Japanese culture from the Edo period.

PA Academic Standards
Content Indicators
(What students will know)
Process Indicators
(What students will do to demonstrate knowledge of the content)
(1) 9.1.12.A - Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and humanities.

(2)9.1.12.B - Recognize, know, use and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce, review, and revise original works in the arts.

(3) 9.1.12.C - Integrate and apply advanced vocabulary to the arts forms.

(4) 9.1.12.E - Delineate a unifying theme through the production of a work of art that reflects skills in media processes and techniques.

(5) 9.1.12.F - Analyze works of arts influenced by experiences or historical and cultural events through production, performance, or exhibition.

(6) 9.2.12.C – Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre and to the periods in which they were created.

(7) 9.2.12.D - Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective.

(8) 9.2.12.K - Identify, explain and analyze traditions as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., story telling – plays, oral histories- poetry, work songs- blue grass).

(9) 9.2.12.L - Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms and techniques from works in the arts.

(10) 9.3.12.B - Determine and apply criteria to a person’s work and works of others in the arts (e.g., use visual scanning techniques to critique the student’s own use of sculptural space in comparison to Julio Gonzales’ use of space in Woman Combing Her Hair).

(11) 9.4.12.D - Analyze and interpret a philosophical position identified in works in the arts and humanities.

(12) R.11.A.1.1.1 Identify and/or apply meaning of multiple-meaning words used in text.

(13) R.11.A.2.5.1 Summarize the major points, processes, and/or events of a nonfictional text as a whole.

(14) R.11.A.1.3.1 Make inferences and/or draw conclusions based on information from text.
(1) Know the intervalic structure of the major pentatonic scale.

(2) Understand the use of the pentatonic scale in traditional Japanese compositional style.

(3) Know English vocabulary pertaining to Japanese music.

(4) Understand a unifying theme in a work of art.

(5) Understand music of the Edo period in Japan as influenced by historical and cultural events.

(6) Understand music of the Edo period in Japan through artistic style and genre.

(7) Understand the historical and cultural perspective for an example of Japanese music.

(8) Understand an Edo period Japanese folk song.

(9) Understand a traditional Japanese song form using "Sakura" as an example.

(10) Understand the critique process in relation to one’s own work and the work of others.

(11) Understand the philosophical connection between Taoist philosophy and the pentatonic scale.

(12) Understand translations of Japanese words.

(13) Understand the process of summarizing.

(14) Understand the content of the provided literature.
(1) Create an original musical composition based on the major pentatonic scale as it relates to traditional Japanese music.

(2) Students will exhibit an understanding that the pentatonic scale contains five notes through guided exploration of Sakura. The students will notate the pentatonic scale in their journals.

(3) Integrate and apply English vocabulary to Japanese music through the journaling process and classroom discussion.

(4A) Produce pentatonic music using notation software.

(4B) Produce an artist's statement that shows his/her intent to create a work of art that represents a unifying theme based on the five philosophical elements of the Wu Hsing.

(5) Students will interpret the content of teacher supplied materials and personal Internet research and incorporate their findings through the process of creating a reflective journal entry which illustrates the development of their composition.

(6) Discuss Edo period artistic style and genre in small groups using instructor guidance.

(7) Student makes a reflective journal entry about the significance of the cherry blossom (Sakura) in Japanese Edo period history.

(8) Present a pentatonic scale composition that reflects the style of an Edo period folk song.

(9) Perform Sakura, and discuss how its structure pertains to the Edo period.

(10) Design with students an evaluation method for peer criticism relating to the composition and the final presentation.

(11) Interpret the Taoist (Wu Hsing) philosophical tradition regarding Pentatonic scales using a journal entry.

(12A) Define Japanese terms within a journal entry.

(12B) Define English musical vocabulary within a journal entry.

(13) Summarize the content of teacher provided materials and personal internet research.

(14) Write a journal response to teacher-constructed analytical and aesthetic questions.

Teacher materials needed:
Blowing Zen: One Mind, One Breath
Carl Abbott
Copyright Carl Abbott 1980 & 1992

Symbolism in Ancient Chinese Music Theory
Kazu Nakaseko
Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Nov., 1957), pp. 147-180
doi:10.2307/843276

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCJAPAN/MUSIC.HTM
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHEMPIRE/CHEMPIRE.HTM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentatonic_scale
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Japan

IPod
Notation software
Manuscript paper
Projector/television w/RCA output
Computer
Foam staff and notes for Special Learners
RCA output cable for Ipod
White/chalk board and/or chart paper
Hand-outs of worksheet
Hand-outs of Japanese resources
CD/audio equipment
Piano/Shakuhachi flute- demonstration of pentatonic scale for students
Sakura music example and hand out
CD recordings of Shakuhachi, The Art of Yokoyama Katsuyo
PowerPoint (Microsoft)
Student materials needed:
Symbolism in Ancient Chinese Music Theory
Kazu Nakaseko
Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Nov., 1957), pp. 147-180
doi:10.2307/843276

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCJAPAN/MUSIC.HTM
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHEMPIRE/CHEMPIRE.HTM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentatonic_scale
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Japan

Journals
Access to teacher Ipod
Computer access
Manuscript paper
All teacher generated hand-outs
Use of PowerPoint and word processing programs

Unit vocabulary:
Major pentatonic scale
Yin and Yang
Wu Hsing: the five material agents
Chiao(wood)-3rd note
Cheng (fire)- 4th note
Kung (Earth) – 1st note
Shang (Metal) 2nd note
Yu (Water) – 5th note
Ryo – male pentatonic scale (ex. starts on C Sharp)
Ritsu – female pentatonic scale (ex. starts of D Sharp)
Cornerstone – 3rd note of the pentatonic scale
Taoist five element theory related to Japanese music
Edo Period of Japan
Sakura
Pentatonic note names (Japanese)
Ro- D
Tsu- F
Re- G
Chi- A
Ri – C
Ongaku – Japanese word for music
Theme
Form
Scale
Staff
Measure
Note duration (quarter, eighth, half, whole)
Phrase
Unit warm-up: N/A
Assessing Prior Knowledge: N/A

Lesson 1


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Introduction to Edo Artistic Period
Students are paired and sent to work on an Internet scavenger hunt structured by the teacher to introduce them to Japanese Edo period history, culture, and music.

This scavenger hunt will include vocabulary and philosophies that are pertinent to the unit. Following completion of this activity the class will reconvene to summarize the content of the scavenger hunt.

Students are then given the rubric for their final project. This is accompanied by the teacher example of the final project.

Students are presented with representative examples of process journaling. The teacher then illustrates the creative process as represented in the example journals and encourages the students to use their space freely to collect ideas and artifacts that may lead to the final composition.

Closure is reached by asking the students to talk briefly about favorite aspects of their new learning.

Students will submit their journals at the end of the class period.
Complete scavenger hunt worksheet.

Write journal entry that defines Japanese and musical vocabulary terms as provided by the scavenger hunt.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Teacher can ask a student to assist a visually impaired learner by reading material presented.

Visually impaired student may use classroom Ipod to make an oral report of his/her journal.

Autistic learners may use a picture/graphic worksheet.
A translator can be made available to the student.

Websites/worksheets can be translated or adjusted to fit the learner’s needs.
Students can review secular music in Japanese culture.

Advanced worksheets can be available to students in order to challenge their abilities.

Lesson 2


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Sakura and the Pentatonic Scale
Class begins with a short media presentation containing a live performance of Japanese music. Teacher begins student led review by allowing students to share entries from their journals. Teacher will encourage students to be creative.

Sakura is introduced as an example of a folk song in the musical tradition of the Edo period. The history and significance of the cherry blossom (Sakura) in Japanese culture are discussed

Students learn to sing Sakura.

Students perform Sakura and analyze its structure (ABCBCAD). After reviewing basic music terminology and exploring several pentatonic scales, students are then asked to compose an original two measure phrase of music in common time using the pentatonic scale.

Closure is reached by allowing students to share journal pages they are particularly proud of.
Students volunteer entries from their journals as review of the previous lesson.

Students participate in a discussion about the significant place of the cherry blossom (Sakura) in Japanese history.

Students notate pentatonic scale used in Sakura in journal.

Students notate a two measure phrase in their journals.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Visually impaired learners can be presented with a raised foam staff and place foam notes on the staff to notate their “A” section.

Ipod can be made available to make a recording of an oral report.

Questions for response can be simplified for students with disabilities.
A translator can be assigned to a student if needed.

Visualizations can be used to demonstrate the lesson.
Students can expand on their notation to include more than two measures.

Students can expand upon questions presented by the teacher at the beginning of class.

Lesson 3


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Taoist Philosophy and Its Relationship to the Pentatonic Scale.
Class begins with a multi-media presentation presentation containing Japanese visual art that represents the five elements of the Wu Hsing philosophy.

Teacher introduces the Wu Hsing philosophy and its relationship to the pentatonic scale. This philosophy maintains that each of the five notes is related to an element (earth, fire, metal, water, and wood). Sakura is then analyzed in this way.

Teacher encourages students to compose a two measure phrase based on one of the elements of the Wu Hsing philosophy and also provides examples.

Students finish the class period by journaling about the Wu Hsing philosophy and how it might affect the compositional process.

Students will turn in their journal at the end of the class period.
Define and summarize Wu Hsing philosophy in journal.

Analyze major pentatonic scale using Taoist philosophy of the elements (Wu Hsing).

Students notate a two measure phrase in their journals.

Students add a reflection about the Wu Hsing philosophy and its possible effects on the compositional process.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Visual representations of each of the elements can be used for learners with disabilities.

Visually impaired learners can be presented with a raised foam staff and Place foam notes on the staff to notate their “B” section.

Ipod can be made available to make a recording of an oral report.
A translator can be assigned to a student if needed.

Visualizations can be used to demonstrate the lesson.
Students can be given opportunities to expand upon the Taoist philosophy and
Form a major theme using an element in their compositions.

Expand upon the pentatonic scale and incorporate the other forms of the scale.

Lesson 4


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Develop Peer review
Class begins with a short media presentation containing a live performance of Japanese Kabuki theatre.

The class will then participate in a question and answer session that examines aesthetics factors contained in the materials previously covered.

Using the same aesthetic and critical analysis factors, the teacher will guide the students in developing a peer evaluation of the final project.

Using the previous disussion as a leaping point, the teacher will lead the students to select one key factor that they would like to add to the rubric.

Students are then asked to compose an original two measure phrase based on one of the elements of the Wu Hsing philosophy.
Students create a the criterion and guidelines for the peer reviewed sectgion of the rubric.

Students notate a two measure phrase in their journal based on one of the five elements.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Visually impaired learners can be presented with a raised foam staff and place foam notes on the staff to notate their “C” section.

Ipod can be made available to make a recording of an oral report.
A translator can be assigned to a student if needed.

Visualizations can be used to demonstrate the lesson.
Students can expand on their notation to include more measures and form a philosophical statement using their element(s) of choice.

Lesson 5


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Composition
Class begins with a video featuring Japanese Taiko drums.

Students and teacher then revisit the final assessment rubric and students practice by evaluating the teacher's model presentation.

Using the journal, students will create an artist’s statement which details their understanding of the Wu Hsing philosophy and explains how it influenced them in designing their composition. Students may also mention their reasons for selecting the visual media that goes in their muilt-media presentation.

Students are then allowed time to work on their final composition.
Students will produce an artist’s statement in journal.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Visually impaired learners can be presented with a raised foam staff and place foam notes on the staff to notate their “D” section.

Ipod can be made available to make a recording of an oral report.

Visual representations maybe used in order to show the form of their composition, on either a white/chalk board, overhead projector, and/or large chart paper.
A translator can be assigned to a student if needed.

Visualizations can be used to demonstrate the lesson.
Enriched students may pair up with students who have disabilities and/or have difficulty constructing the project in order to assist these students in completing their tasks.

Students can expand on their notation to include more measures and form a philosophical statement using their element(s) of choice.

Lesson 6


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Final Presentations
Final presentations occur after allowing time for students to finalize their projects and ask questions.

Students will present their individual multi-media presentations to the class for teacher and peer evaluation.
See summative assessment.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Visually impaired students have had the opportunity to use the foam staff/notes, now can have another student transfer their composition to notation software (i.e., finale).

The IPod journals kept by the students throughout the unit can now be used to assist in the presentation. An oral presentation maybe substituted for a multi-media presentation.
Translators maybe used to assist the student with presenting the final project.
Enriched students may pair up with students who have disabilities and/or have difficulty constructing the project in order to assist these students in completing their tasks.

Students may also be allowed to present the philosophical construction of their composition. Students may share with the class how their project pertains to the specific element(s) they used in their composition.

Video demonstrations may assist the multi-media presentation constructed by the student.

Rubric


Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
Composition
-The composition demonstrates mastery of the pentatonic scale through use of harmonies and transpositions.
-Structure of the composition follows a variation in form that is collaborated in the journal.
-The composition demonstrates clear understanding of the pentatonic scale.
-Structure of the composition follows the form of Sakura. (ABCBCAD)
-The composition demonstrates moderate understanding of the pentatonic scale.
-Structure of the composition follows a form other than that of Sakura.
-The composition demonstrates little understanding of the pentatonic scale.
-Structure of the composition follows an unrecognizable form.
Multi-media Presentation
-The multi-media presentation contains the artist’s statement and a variety of images including original visual artwork that clearly reflects the style of the composition.
-All student-produced and selected artwork expertly demonstrate the philosophical content in the artist’s statement.
-The multi-media presentation contains the artist’s statement and a variety of images that appropriately reflect the style of the composition.
-Student selected images relate to the philosophical content in the artist’s statement.
-The multi-media presentation contains the artist’s statement and some images that appropriately reflect the style of the composition.
-Most images relate to the philosophical content in the artist’s statement.
-The multi-media presentation is incomplete and contains images that inappropriately represent the style of the music.
-Chosen images are unrelated to the philosophical content in the artist’s statement.
Artist’s Statement (Journal)
-Statement expertly demonstrates that one or more of the five philosophical elements formed the basis for the composition.
-Statement clearly aligns with the final version of the composition.
-Statement clearly demonstrates that one of the five philosophical elements formed the basis for the composition.
-Statement clearly aligns with the final version of the composition.
-Statement incompletely demonstrates a philosophical element formed the basis for the composition.
-Statement incompletely aligns with the final version of the composition.
-Statement shows little evidence that a philosophical element formed the basis for the composition.
-Statement contains little alignment with the final version of the composition.
Student Generated Content (During lesson #4 under the guidance of the teacher the students will choose a criteria item and develop this section of the rubric)
Student Generated Content
Student Generated Content
Student Generated Content
Student Generated Content


Unit accommodations for students not proficient on summative task: N/A
Unit enrichments: N/A


Student Work Samples and Teacher Reflection


Zachary Pelton

Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
Not available
Not available
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