2007 B

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2007 Unit B


Grade level: High school
Discipline: Visual Arts - 3D

Teacher name
Email address
School or District
David Bear
dave_bear@mtwp.net
Manheim Township High School
Ashley Biega
biegaa@bsd.k12.pa.us
Blackhawk High School
Renee King
rking@cvschools.org
CV High School
Stephanie Kline
skline@basd.net
Bellefonte High School

Title of unit: Form and Surface in Japanese Ceramics
Overview: The students will develop a sketchbook containing thumbnails of Japanese forms/surfaces and journaling.
The students will evaluate the tools, equipment, and processes used in the Japanese ceramic arts.
The students will assess the influence environment has had on the Japanese and apply it to the surfaces of their own work.
Time needed to complete the unit: 4 weeks

Essential learning(s): Students will explore how Japanese aesthetics have influenced their personal work.
Summative task: The students will submit a portfolio which includes a record of their process, written reflective statements that describe their experience (successes/ challenges), and 3-D products. A teacher student interview will provide opportunity for students to discuss what they have done.

PA Academic Standards
Content Indicators
(What students will know)
Process Indicators
(What students will do to demonstrate knowledge of the content)
(1)9.1.12.C Integrate and apply advanced vocabulary to the arts forms.

(2)9.1.12.D Demonstrate specific styles in combination through the production or performance of a unique work of art (e.g., a dance composition that combines jazz dance and African dance).

(3)R.11.A.2.3.1 Make inferences and/or draw conclusions based on information from text.

(4)9.2.12.J Identify, explain and analyze historical and cultural differences as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., plays by Shakespeare, works by Michelangelo, ethnic dance, and music).

(5)9.2.12.L Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms, and techniques from works in the arts (e.g., Copland and Graham’s Appalachian Spring and Millet’s The Gleaners).

(6)9.3.12.B Determine and apply criteria to a person’s work and works of others in the arts (e.g., use visual scanning techniques to critique the student’s own use of sculptural space in comparison to Julio Gonzales’ use of space in Woman Combing Her Hair).

(7)9.4.12.A Evaluate an individual’s philosophical statement on a work in the arts and its relationship to one’s own life based on knowledge and experience.

(8)9.1.12.E Delineate a unifying theme through the production of a work of art that reflects skills in media processes and techniques.

(9)M.11.A.2.1.1 Solve problems using operations with rational numbers including rates and percents (single and multi-step and multiple procedure operations) (e.g., distance, work and mixture problems, etc.).
(1) The students will know correct ceramic terminology.

(2)The students will know how a raku work is fired.

(3) The students will know the similarities/differences between American and Japanese aesthetics.

(4)The students will understand the similarities and differences between Japanese and American ceramics.

(5a) The students will know how themes of nature have been used in ceramics.

(5b) The students will know the impact of nature on the ceramic process.

(6) The students will know critical response approaches.

(7) The students will know the effect that Western philosophy has on viewing Eastern art.

(8) The students will maintain a written record of activities, coursework, and experience.

(9) The students will understand the shrinkage rate of a clay body.
(1a) The students will participate in an iPod review game. (http://www.ipodarcade.com)

(1b) The students will take a vocabulary quiz.

(2) The students will demonstrate knowledge of the raku firing process through participation and an interview with teacher.

(3) The students will compare and contrast the similarities/differences between American and Japanese aesthetics by using a Venn Diagram after reading "The Aesthetics of Japan" article.

(4) The students will analyze and critique historical Japanese and American ceramic arts through class discussion and journaling.

(5a) The students will view images of ceramics with nature themes.

(5b) The students will create surface designs on a ceramic form inspired by their environment.

(6a) The students will participate in a critique session using the hats of criticism forum or the Feldman Approach.

(6b) The students will evaluate the ceramic work of their peers in a classroom critique.

(7) The students will participate in a philosophical discussion after a web quest which explores Japanese aesthetics and the nature of beauty.

(8) The students will develop a written record of activities, coursework, and experience through journaling and thumbnail sketches.

(9) The students will predict the shrinkage rate of the clay body through mathematical calculations.

Teacher materials needed:
(Number represents lesson)
1) Wabi-Sabi:
http://nobleharbor.com/tea/chado/WhatIsWabi-Sabi.htm
1) Appreciations of Japanese Culture, by Donald Keene
1) Living the Japanese Arts and Ways, by H.E. Davey
1) http://www.aesthetics-online.org/ideas/miller.html
Teaching Japanese aesthetics
1) http://www.touchingstone.com/
Japanese art gallery
1) http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/011397.htm
Provides many sites including the Japanese Ceramic Society: http://www.ceramic.or.jp/welcome.html
1) http://www.asia.si.edu/
Freer Gallery
1) Yanagi,Soetsu. The Unknown Craftsman: A Japanese Insight into Beauty. Translated by Bernard Leach. New York: Kodansha,1972.
1) Info. on Shinto:
http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm
2) http://www.clevelandart.org/educef/asianodyssey/pdf/sumiemi.pdf
2) http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/
2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumi-e
2) http://www.japan-101.com/art/sumi.htm
2) http://www.teachartathome.com/sumi-e.htm
2) http://www.acornplanet.com/about_us.shtml
2) http://www.international.ucla.edu/shenzhen/2002ncta/lindemulder/sumi-e.html
2) http://www.silverdragonstudio.com/sumi-e/philos.html
3) iPod Slide Show /Ceramic Decal Works – American/Japanese
3) Japanese Music
3) Web Resources:
3) http://www.leslawrence.com
Contemporary American Ceramic Artist-Extensive decal work on porcelain.
3) http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/lawrence.htm
American Ceramic Artist-Ceramic Decals used as surface decoration
3) http://www.printandclay.net/
International Museum of Clay & Prints. Site dedicated to Ceramic Artists who incorporate the use of ceramic decals.
3) http://www.papilio.com/hps/help.php?section=FAQ
Question & Answers about Ceramic Decals Process
3) http://www.e-yakimono.net/index.html
Japanese Pottery web site
3. Electric Kiln
3. Pyrometric Cones, ^05, ^06
4) http://www.claygirl.com
Provides descriptive explanation of different styles of raku.
4) http://www.terebess.hu/terebessgabor/raku.html
Provides detailed description of Japanese Raku history, tea bowls, artists, and traditional tea ceremony.
4) http://www.leachpottery.com
Official website of Bernard Leach, ceramics artist.
4) http://www.paulsoldner.com
Official website of Paul Soldner, American ceramic artist
4) http://www.yellowtail.org/raku
Incredible visual images of a raku firing.
1-4) http://www.ipodarcade.com
Japanese Ceramics Vocabulary Review Game
1-4) http://www.edbydesign.com/specneedsres/specialart/artideas1.html
Teaching clay with physical adaptaions.
1-4) Reaching and Teaching Students with Special Needs Through Art, Beverly Levett Gerber and Doris M. Guay, 2006
Student materials needed:
(Number represents lesson)
1) The Aesthetics of Japan, By Jonathon C. English (Handout)
Use a “Main Idea” organizer found on: http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6-12/Tools/mainideaorgfull.pdf
Compare and contrast Japanese Aesthetics to American:
Use a Venn Diagram organizer found on:
http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6-12/Tools/2wayvenn.PDF
1) Japanese Basics: A Handbook for Students by Frank L. Chance and Linda H. Chance. World Affairs Council of Philadelphia.
2) Clay slabs (Slab roller or rolling pins and runner strips)
2) Bamboo brushes
2) Underglazes
2) Practice sheets
2) Ink
3. Sketchbook
3. Pencils / Pens
3. Access to laser printer
3. Decal paper & supplies (Standard Ceramic Supply-Pittsburg, PA)
3. Computers and scanner
3. Buckets of warm water
3.Underglazes, glazes, lustres
4) Raku clay
4) Raku glazes
4) Handouts
4) Potter's wheel
4) Rib
4) Hand tools
4) Needle tool
4) Water
4) Wax
4) Brushes
4) Kiln
4) Burn Barrels
4) Tongs
4) Newspaper
4) Propane or Raku kiln
4) Sawdust
4) Horse hair
4) Leaves
4) Grass
4) Magazines
4) Straw
4) Throwing American Style Raku Pottery For Beginners, Corvus Moon, 2007
1-4) http://www.ipodarcade.com
Japanese Ceramics Vocabulary Review Game

Unit vocabulary:
(Numbers represent lesson)
1) Aesthetics: The branch of Philosophy that deals with questions on art, beauty, the nature of the artistic experience, and the role of art in society.
1) Wabi-Sabi: Japanese aesthetic of simplicity, freshness or quietness, imperfection, impermanence, and incompleteness.
1) Zen: A form of the Buddhist religion that stresses the practice of meditation.
1) General Japanese Aesthetics 4 major concepts include suggestion, perishability, irregularity, and simplicity.
1) Suggestion: The hinting of the inner spirit of nature, not just the faithful representation.
1) Perishability: Adds value to the art work because it lacks permanence (like nature.)
1) Irregularity: Importance in the one-of-a kind that would therefore show the individual spirit (such as nature).
1) Simplicity: Similar to the immediacy found in nature.
1) Shinto: All the religious practices that involve the spirits that inhabit the land of Japan. (See above web site)
Three categories of aesthetic taste:
1) Traditional Sector: Aesthetics of the upper class.
1) Practical Sector: The work of an exceptionally skilled Japanese artisan or craftsman which stems from traditional aesthetics. Aesthetics of the artisans who have immediate understanding of the power of formal elements)
1) Popular Sector: Aesthetics of the masses.

2)Ink—made from carbon or pine soot combined with glue and binders; opaque for
calligraphy, transparent for ink painting
2)Monochromatic—a style or form of art made of only a single color or hue and its tints
and shades
2)Satori—the inner, intuitive experience of enlightenment, unintelligible by logic or reason,
that is the central Buddhist goal; usually achieved only after a period of concentrated
preparation, but may occur suddenly or spontaneously as the result of a chance incident
or a sudden noise
2)Sesshu-- a Japanese monk-master painter living during the 15th century.
2)Sumi-e—a style of monochromatic ink painting where the bold use of ink strokes and
washes allowed artists to eliminate all but the essential characteristics from their subjects
2)Suzuri—a grinding stone
2)White space—together with abstraction, fundamentals of sumi-e painting; it refers to the
color and texture of the rice paper, which is an essential element of the painting
2)Zen Buddhism—a doctrine that teaches that the Buddha-nature, the potential to achieve
enlightenment, is possible for everyone and can achieved by a sudden breakthrough of
everyday thought. Training leading to such an achievement is usually transmitted from
master to disciple.
2)Black--when used alone as a color must represent all colors
2)Bokuseki--literally “ink trace,” a style of calligraphy developed by the by the Zen monks
2)Calligraphy--flowing lines made with brushstrokes to create ideograms as characters; the
art of using a pen or brushes to write beautiful letters and words
2) Vocabulary from: http://www.clevelandart.org/educef/asianodyssey/pdf/sumiemi.pdf

3.Vocab: (http://www.wiki.com)
3.Ceramic Decals- A decal or transfer is a plastic, cloth paper or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a images that can be moved to another surface upon contact, usually with the aid of heat or water. Decal paper and a laser printer may be used to easily apply printed images on ceramic surfaces in the unit plan.
3.Laser Printer- A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper.
3.Decal Paper- Water slide decals (or slip decals) are water-mounted decals generally printed face up and rely on the dextrose corn sugar residue from the decal paper to bond the decal transfer to a surface. A water based adhesive layer can be added to the decal to create a stronger bond or may be placed between layers of lacquer to create a durable decal transfer. Water slide decals are thinner than many other decorative techniques (such as vinyl stickers) and as they are printed, they can be produced to a very high level of detail. As such, they are popular in craft areas such as scale model-making. Until recently, water slide decals were professionally printed and only available in supplied designs, but with the advent of printable decal paper for colour inkjet and laser printers, custom decals can now be produced by the hobbyist or small business.
3.Iron Oxide-Naturally occurring metallic oxide that is used as a colorant in ceramic glazes and clay bodies. Iron Oxide is also found in laser toner which allows printed imagery to be transferred and fired onto ceramic surfaces.
3.Bisque Ware Bisque, also biscuit, is a fired piece of unglazed ceramic ware. Depending on the technique and materials used, it is either the final article, such as dolls' heads, or an intermediary stage before the article has a coating of glaze applied and is then fired again.
3.Glaze Ware- A glaze is a vitreous coating to a ceramic material whose primary purposes are decoration or protection. Glazes can be considered specialised forms of glass and therefore can be described as amorphous solids. Glazing is the process of coating the piece with a thin layer the raw materials which, on firing, will form a hard, glass-like coating.
3.Pyrometric Cones- Pyrometric cones are pyrometric devices that are used to gauge heatwork during the firing of ceramic materials. The cones, often used in sets of three as shown in the illustration, are positioned in a kiln with the wares to be fired and provide a visual indication of when the wares have reached a required state of maturity, a combination of time and temperature
3.Underglaze Pencils- Underglaze is a method of decorating ceramic articles, the decoration is applied to the surface before it is glazed. Advanced students may draw imagery on their ceramic forms in the bisque stage prior to decal application.
3.Lustres-Metallic Oxides such as Gold and Silver that may be applied over glazed ceramic work as accents. Advanced ceramic students would have time to explore such effects in relating to decal application.
3.Illustration- An Illustration is a visualisation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form.
3. Anime-(アニメ, Anime? IPA pronunciation: /ɑnime/ listen (help•info) in Japanese, but typically /ˈænɪˌme(ɪ)/ or /ˈænɪmə/ in English) (pl. anime) is an abbreviation of the word "animation". Outside Japan, the term most popularly refers to animation originating in Japan. To the West, not all animation is considered anime; and anime is considered a subset of animation. While some anime is hand drawn, computer assisted animation techniques have become quite common in recent years. Like any entertainment medium, the story lines represent most major genres of fiction. Anime is broadcast on television, distributed on media such as DVD and VHS, and included in video games. Additionally, some are produced as full length motion pictures. Anime often draws influence from manga, light novels, and other cultures. Some anime storylines have been adapted into live action films and television series.

4)Bernard Leach – Ceramic artist that is credited with bringing raku to the West.
4)Combustable - Material capable of igniting and burning
4)Raku - form of Japanese pottery characterized by low firing temperatures (resulting in a fairly porous body), lead glazes, and the removal of pieces from the kiln while still glowing hot.
4)Paul Soldner -American ceramic artist that is noted for his influence on American Raku.
4)Tea Bowl - also known as a chawan. It is a bowl used for preparing and drinking matcha (powdered green tea) in Japanese tea ceremonies.
4)Tea Ceremony - traditional ritual influenced by Zen Buddhism in which powdered green tea, or matcha (抹茶), is ceremonially prepared by a skilled practitioner and served to a small group of guests in a tranquil setting.
4)Reduction - technique used in pottery firing where oxygen is removed from the atmosphere
4)Chojiro - Korean potter believed to have founded the raku process.
Unit warm-up:
(Numbers represent lesson)
1) Students answer the following question in their sketchbook/journal: "Why do we enjoy being outside?"
2)Japanese "Coal Miner's Dance"
3.)Ceramic surfaces discussion involving ceramic artists work. Students will be discussing the various methods of surface decoration used on ceramic forms. Students will discover the ceramic decal process.
Assessing Prior Knowledge:
What type of surface materials do you think the Japanese traditionally used?
What was their subject matter for their surface painting?

Lesson 1


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Intro to Japanese Aesthetics
1. The students compare and contrast Japanese and American aesthetics.
2. The students will assess the works of historical and contemporary Japanese artists.
3. The students will create a sketchbook/ journal that will serve as a reference for future lessons.
4. The students will develop a common language in disscussing aesthetics through class lecture, reveiw of imagery, and small group discussion.
1. The students will create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting the differences between Japanese and American aesthetics.
2. The students will assess the works of historical and contemporary Japanese artists through a collage of images in their sketchbook and journaling.
3. The students will create a sketchbook and journal to serve as a record and a reference for future lesson.
4a. The students will participate in an ipod game to review (On www.ipodarcade.com).
4b. The students will complete a vocabulary quiz.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
*Highlighting main ideas in sketchbook/journal
*Signs posted defining key terms/concepts
*Additional visual and tactile examples
*Preferential seating near teacher. (Hearing)
*Prewritten notes/PowerPoint (with language adaptations)
*Signs posted defining key terms and concepts
*Create a three-dimensional model reflecting the Japanese aesthetic.
*Research a contemporary Japanese artist that relates to the student's personal interest.

Lesson 2


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Sumi-e Underglaze Painting
1. The students will examine the role of nature in the history/background of Sumi-e painting.
2. The students will practice Japanese Sumi-e painting techniques based on a natural subject matter.
3. The students will experiment with the process of underglazing.
4. The students will develop a technical language of terminolgy through visual examples, lecture, and demonstration.
1. The students will demonstrate knowledge of Japanese Sumi-e by use of sketchbook journaling.
2. The students will create a sumi-e inspired ceramic surface.
3. The students will critique the work of their peers.
4a The students will participate in an ipod game to review (On www.ipodarcade.com).
4b. The students will complete a vocabulary quiz.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
*Enlarge brush handle for muscular disabilities. (bulb handle brush)
*Allow extra time to complete surface
*Handouts defining key terms and process.
*When playing music (Coal Miner's) place the stereo on hard surface near the student so that the student can feel the music.(hearing disability/deaf)
*Leave materials and tools in same place so that they easily remember where they are.(vision/blind)
*Provide visuals supporting content taught.
*Pronounce new vocabulary in repetition.
*PowerPoint set up on computer for review.
*Multiple glaze techniques
*Develop and create own brush from natural materials.
*Experiment with alternative tools for alternative effect.

Lesson 3


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Ceramic Decals: Creative and Modern Approaches
1. Students will identify how contemporary artists are using ceramic decals.
2.Students will create decals inspired by natural forms to be applied to their ceramic surfaces.
3. The students will develope a vocabulary on the technical aspects of ceramic decaling through artist research, class discussion and demonstration.
1. Students will participate in a Venn Diagram group discussion comparing / contrasting decal surfaces vs. glazed ceramic surfaces.
2. Students will create a hand built or wheel thrown form applying decals inspired by their environment.
3a. The students will participate in an ipod game to reveiw (On www. ipodarcade.com).
3b. The students will complete a vocabulary quiz.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
*Handout listing steps of ceramic decal transfers.
*PowerPoint worksheet including Japanese / American decal work
*Daily sequencing of lesson on board (hearing)
*Provide high contrast medium in creating their artwork such as black and white or red and green. (vision problem)
*Step by step illustrations of ceramic decal process in handout.
*Language adaptations for classroom handouts. (ESL)
Students hand draw parts of imagery with underglaze pencils prior to decal work.
*Application of multiple colored glazes prior to decal application
*Additional surface materials such as metallic lustres, oxide washes, India ink.

Lesson 4


Topic
Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Raku
1. Students will know the history of raku in Japan and its emergence and place in American ceramic culture.
2. Students will know the proper steps, procedures, and materials involved in raku.
3. Students will analyze their raku work in a group critique.
4. Students will use objects from nature in the raku firing process. (leaves, straw, saw dust, grass)
5. The students will predict the shrinkage rate of a raku (high grog) clay body through mathematical calculations.
6. The students will develop a vocabulary on the technical aspects of Raku through artist research, class discussion, and demonstration.
1. Students will summarize information from PowerPoint & lecture in their sketchbook.
2. Students will support their understanding of the raku procedure steps by engaging in a interview.
3. Students will evaluate peer work through a verbal group critique.
4. Students will create a raku form using the natural materials.
5. The students will create a clay shrinkage bar.
6a. The students will participate in an ipod game to review (www.ipodarcade.com).
6b. The students will complete a vocabulary quiz.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
Pairing students
Structures and ordered environment
Descriptive handouts available
Additional time available
Providing labels at each raku station with procedure steps.
*Posters of process
*Video with language appropriate subtitles
*Handouts in appropriate language
*Adding horse hair as an additional surface material
*Experimenting with different combustibles (magazine, newspaper, or sawdust) to produce different results.


Rubric



Vocabulary
*Uses an extended range of appropriate terminology relating to ceramics, art history, production.
*Exhibits a solid understanding of Japanese aesthetics through the use of extended vocabulary in teacher student interview.
*Uses appropriate terminology relating to ceramics, art history, and production.
*Beginning vocabulary as it applies to Japanese aesthetics in teacher student interview.
*Uses limited terminology relating to ceramics, art history, and production.
*Unclear reference to Japanese aesthetics in the teacher student interview.
*Confusion on basic terminology relating to ceramics, art history, and production.
*Unclear reference to Japanese aesthetics in teacher student interview.
Aesthetics
Accurately and fully supports their artistic reflection in reference to Japanese history and aesthetics in teacher student interview.
After further questioning recognizes some influence of Japanese history and aesthetics in teacher student interview.
Response based upon memorization as opposed to application in reference to Japanese history and aesthetics in teacher student interview.
Confusion and misleading statements about Japanese history and aesthetics in teacher student interview.
Artistic Process
Portfolio clearly incorporates the influential aspects of nature and our environment through drawings, journal entries, collage, 3-D form, and independent exploration of Japanese processes and materials.
Portfolio clearly incorporates the influential aspects of nature and our environment through drawings, journal entries, collage, and 3-D form.
Portfolio incorporates the influential aspects of nature and our environment through drawings, journal entries, collage, and 3-D form in a general manner.
Absence of influential aspects of nature and our environment through drawings, journal entries, collage, and 3-D form in portfolio.


Student Work Samples and Teacher Reflection


Ashley Biega - The ability to teach ceramics classes in my district is truly a joy for myself as well as my students. Participation in the Governor's Institute provided me an intensive unit on Japanese Aesthetics to help supplement the instruction I have given in the past. I felt that working with my team of fellow ceramic teachers helped me understand teaching my craft better as well as reaching out to other resources, ideas, and methods of instruction.

The unit that my team wrote was so diverse in materials that it was impossible for me to complete this year as I had already submitted my budget. However, the sketchbooks, Raku firings, sumi painting, and study of Japanese aesthetics were a huge success. The students seemed to really enjoy learning about a different culture as well as develop an appreciation for it.

If I were to do this differently, I would have narrowed the scope of the work down. Instead of each lesson being a different project (which is incredibly time consuming), each lesson would teach a different stage in the development of a final finished piece of artwork. For example, lesson one would teach the students to mix their own clay, lesson two would teach a specific building technique, lesson three would teach a method of decoration, lesson four would be centered around firing, etc, etc.
Advanced
Proficient
Basic
Below Basic
ADVANCED1.jpg
PROFICIENT.jpg
BASIC.jpg
BELOW.jpg