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2006 Unit A

Grade level: Intermediate
Discipline: Physical education

Teacher name
Email address
School or District
Gary DeVivo
Eisenhower Elementary
Jennifer Rodgers
Yiorgos Plakakis

Title of unit: Creative movement and cardiovascular fitness
Overview: Integrates math graphing skills and movement concepts to direct students in the creation of a drama piece or dance. The students will use locomotor and nonlocomotor skills to understand tempo, collect and interpret data, develop graphing skills, and transform graphing skills into a tempo driven performance.
Time needed to complete the unit: 5-7 class sessions

Essential learning(s):
Summative task: The students will create and perform a series of movements that include various movement tempos. The bar graphs, constructed by the studentsand depicting the participants' heart rates, will define the tempos used in the performance.

PA Academic Standards
Content Indicators
(What students will know)
Process Indicators
(What students will do to demonstrate knowledge of the content)
1. 9.1.5.A Know and use the elements and principles of dance: elements of time, principles of technique.

2. 9.1.5.A Know and use the elements and principles of dance: elements of time, principle of technique.

3. 10.4.6.C Identify and apply heart rate monitoring to assess the body’s response to moderate to vigorous physical activity.

4. 4E.1.2.1 Graph data or complete a graph given the data (bar graph, line graph or pictograph – grid is provided).

5. 9.1.5.B Recognize, know, use and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce, review and revise original works in dance: move, perform, read and notate dance, create and choreograph, improvise.

6. 10.4.6.B Explain the effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities on the body systems.

7. 4E.1.2.2 Translate information from one type of display to another (table, chart, bar graph, line graph or pictograph)

8. 9.3.5.F Know how to recognize the process of criticism in identifying and analyzing characteristics among works in the arts.

9. 10.4.6.F Identify and describe positive and negative interactions of group members in physical activities.
1. All movement can be divided into categories of movements.

2. Tempo, a time element of dance, affects the speed of movement.

3. Pulse rates can vary from person to person.

4. Multiple pulse rates can be graphed.

5. Tempo of movement affects heart rate.

6. Sustained high heart rate levels enhance cardiovascular fitness.

7. Graphs can be intrepreted and expressed in different ways.

8. Personal critique is essential in learning.

9. Interaction of a group has impact.
1. Demonstrate correctly locomotor and nonlocomotor movements.

2. Demonstrate movements to varying tempos of movement.

3. Take pulse rates of themselves and other individuals during normal, everyday activities.

4. Tally and correctly graph data.

5. Perform varying movements and record heart rates created by movements.

6. Through verbal and/or written assessment explain the importance of sustaining higher heart rate levels to enhancing cardiovascular fitness levels.

7. Using the graphs as a floor plan, the students, divided into groups of fours, will create and perform a movement sequence involving varying, corresponding tempos.

8. Write critiques of performances.

9. Write critiques of group performances identifying positive and negative interactions of group members during performance.

Teacher materials needed:
Amplification system to amplify metronome
Tamborine or other musical instrument
Music player
CD with various tempos
Various visuals – e.g., pictures, text, text translations
Heart rate monitors
Portable chalkboard/easel (to display calculations)
Checklist or Palm to record assessments
Various colored Magic Markers
Dry erase markers and/or chalk
Paperclips, toothpicks, M&Ms, and similar items
Video or digital recorder
Graph paper
Student materials needed:
Musical instruments optional
Writing utensils
Graph paper

Unit vocabulary:
Creative movement
Cardiovascular fitness
Bar graph
Unit warm-up: Prepare the body for class participation. Check with each individual lesson.
Assessing Prior Knowledge: Check the math instructor's timeline for the year to correlate with math graphing unit.
Discuss with the math instructor the level of knowledge the students have on using bar graphs.

Lesson 1

Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Movement Tempos and Pulse Rates
1. Overview of unit: tempo, graphing, interpreting and transforming graphs, individual responsibility and group etiquette.
2. Resting pulse rate.
a. Define pulse.
b. Location of pulse radial,brachial
and carotid.
c. Calculate pulse rate.
3. Warm-up.
a. Students will explore
nonlocomotor movements taking
pulse intermittently.
b. Students will explore locomotor
movements taking pulse
4. Partner pulse rates.
a. Take partner's pulse rates.
b. Students perform different
locomotors and nonlocomotors
and take pulse rates intermittently.
5. Discussion of the relationship between pulse rates and various types of movements.
6. Tempo.
a. Define tempo.
b. Discussion of relationship
between tempo and pulse rate.
c. Students will discover ways to
increase pulse with nonlocomotor
d. Students will discover ways to
create a slightly higher than
normal pulse rate using
locomotor movements (e. g.,
running in slow motion).
7. Discussion of relationship of different movements, tempo, pulse rate and physical fitness levels.
Teacher Observation:
-Students correctly taking pulse rates of themselves and classmates.
-Students performing locomotor and nonlocomotor movements.
-Students define tempo through kinesthetic or verbal responses.
-Students correctly calculate pulse rates.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
-Display various visuals.
-Use partners as mentors.
-Music incorporation to accentuate tempo and movement.
-Heart monitors that students have previous experience with.
-Display various visuals (e. g., pictures displaying the placement of fingers on correct pulse rate points).
-Display visuals with corresponding texts and translations of that text.
-Use partners as mentors.
-Music incorporation to accentuate tempo and movement.
-Use music from native country.
-Heart monitors to assist in accurately taking pulse rates.
-Peer teaching.
-Student modeling (student used as a demonstrator).
-Student using an instrument, (a percussion instrument to create tempo for students to follow when moving).
-Students may reverse direction when performing locomotor skills, (e. g., skip backwards, sideways).

Lesson 2

Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
1. Develop data for graphs.
a. Group students by gender.
b. From each group collect the
number of students in the group
and record.
c. Each group will use their bodies
to create a “human bar graph”
starting from a point on a
designated line.
2. Explore ways of communicating data collected by gender grouping.
a. Use numbers.
b. Create a bar graph.
c. With student input recreate
the “human bar graph” on the
chalkboard or easel.
3. Discuss different ways of regrouping students to collect data.
4. Group students by hair color.
a. From each group collect the
b. Create a “human bar graph.”
c. Recreate the “human bar graph”
on the chalkboard or easel.
d. Students copy the graph onto
graph paper.
5. Discuss ways to display more creative graphs.
a. Student input.
b. Give examples such as each
bar being a different color for
readability and creativity (e. g., use
red for red hair, yellow for
c. Display other examples of
creating bar graphs.
6. Graphing pulse rates of different tempos.
a. Using a metronome amplified,
or other instrument such as a
tamborine, produce an audible
rhythm for students to march to.
b. Start at low tempo- largo, have
students march to the rhythm of
c. Students will march for
approximately 30 seconds, then
take pulse.
d. Poll group to determine the
average pulse rate of entire group
and record pulse rate.
e. Continue in this manner using
the other musical terms and
resultant tempos in order from
lowest to highest tempo: andante,
moderato, allegro and presto.
f. Poll and record the resultant
heart rates of group.
g. Students develop a bar graph
using the data.
e. Instructor displays graph on
chalkboard or easel with class
input for students to check their
7. Assignment : Heart rates related to varying activities.
a. Students will wear heart
monitors during regular outdoor
recess activities.
b.The students will monitor the
differing heart rates that result
from participating in different
c. At conclusion of recess, the
students will record the activity in
which they were involved and the
maximum heart rate reached
during that activity.
d. Students will turn in all data
8. Review pulse taking if heart monitors are not available.
Teacher Observation: Students portraying on-task behaviors.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
-Use partners as mentors.
-Stack objects (e. g., cones, cans) to represent the bar graphs. The students may better be able to visualize the graph and what each bar, when drawn as a graph, represents.
-Display various visuals with translations.
-Use partners as mentors.

Check for cultural differences:
1. Opposition to dancing: Allow alternative terminology, movements (e. g., act out instead of dancing).
2. Gender issues: Group those of same gender together.
-Peer teaching.
-Allow students to create different types of graphs.

Lesson 3

Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Pulse rates and physical fitness enefits of varying activities.
1. Review graphing, depending on the group's level of comprehension.
a. Use objects to line up in
personal space to create bar
graphs (e. g., M&Ms, paperclips,
b. Students will draw the bar
graphs they created out of the
tangible items.
c. Students will complete several
practice bar graphs from given
2. Quiz.
a. Using designated data the
students will produce correctly
drawn bar graphs.
b. Collect the students’ bar graphs.
3. Review resting pulse rate.
4. Review tempo, locomotor and nonlocomotor movements and varying heart rates as a result of the rate of movement.
5. Discuss movements related to different activities.
a. Distribute graph paper.
b. Present information
accumulated from recess
c. Students will graph the data.
6. Station work.
a. Identify the activities students
will be instructed to participate in
(activities may vary):
- Scooter boards
- Jump rope
- Climbing wall
- Cargo net
b. Discuss and have students
predict which activities will create
a higher maximum pulse rate.
c. Assign students to each
d. After 5 minutes have students
identify the maximum heart rate
reached during the activity.
e. Record average maximum
heart from each activity station.
7. Graph the resultant average heart rates of each activity.
8. Discuss the relationship of activities to benefits for physical fitness.
Quiz: Graphing.
Homework: Collect data (see 9a from Lesson 2 instruction/content section).
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
-Display various visuals (e. g., occupations).
-Use partners as mentors.
-Music incorporation to accentuate tempo and movement.
-Heart monitors.
-Display various visuals with translations: pictures of various people that identify specific occupations.
-Use partners as mentors; the mentors will model expected behaviors.
-Music incorporation to accentuate tempo and movement.
-Heart monitors to assist in accurately taking pulse rates.
-Peer teaching.
-Student modeling (student used as a demonstrator).
-Student using an instrument to create tempo for other students to move to.

Lesson 4

Instruction (Lesson plan)
Formative assessment
Interpreting Graphs Kinesthetically
1. Review graphing.
2. Discuss a variety of ways to display data from a graph.
a. Various types of graphs.
b. Movements.
4. Performing a graph kinesthetically.
a. Display a bar graph.
b. Discuss different ways of using
movement to represent the graph.
c. Explore ways of using
movement to represent the graph.
d. Tempo of movements should
align with the graph.
5. Small group work.
a. Divide into groups of 4.
b. Display a graph to the class.
c. Individual groups will create
movements to represent the
6. Critiques using constructive comments.
a. Define: Constructive comments
can be verbal, non-verbal or
written feedback by students or
b. Students will be critiquing other
classmates on the perfomance of
the summative task.
c. Discuss constructive comments.
d. Display examples of positive
and negative comments.
7. Interpreting graphs kinesthetically.
a. Each group will perform the
series of movements they created
from the graph that was
b. Members of class will critique
and respond verbally or in written
form to each of the performances
to provide feedback to each group.
8. Explain summative task.
a. Small groups will each
construct a graph utilizing at least
three different tempos.
b.Construct a rough draft of the
c. Create a dance or series of
movements to represent the bar
graph they created.
d. The performance should last
between 30 seconds and one
minute and 30 seconds.
e. All members of group are to be
involved in the performance.
9. Groups will work on summative task.
10. Practice of summative tasks.
a. Rough draft of graph should be
b. Each group must describe the
performance to the instructor and
receive approval before
performances may be practiced.
c. Instructor may offer feedback to
help students align the
performance with the graph that
they constructed.
d. Upon approval, groups may
11. Practice performances and
a. Groups perform for class.
b. Optional: Allow class members
to ctitique each performance to
offer feedback.
c. Each performance will be
d. Instructor should check
for alignment to the data before
final graph is constructed.
e. Each group may view the
recording and make any
adjustments they deem
f. Groups will construct final
12. Final performances.
a. Review critiquing.
b. Each group will perform their
dance for the class.
c. Following each performance
critiques will be produced by each
13. Each group will be given feedback from the critiques.
14. Wrap-up:
1. Discuss summative
2. Review concepts learned
during unit.
Teacher Evaluation: Students critical responses.
Teacher Observation: Group work and cooperation displayed in dance performance.
Accommodations for special learners
Accommodations for ESL students
Enrichment for gifted learners
-Give an example of a performance. Construct a graph and have one of the groups perform a choreograped series of movements.
-Use handheld device to collect critiques verbally.
-Visuals, through various graphs, display a list of positive constructive comments.
-Assign a leader to each group.
-Conflict resolution.
-Visuals to assist in graphing.
-Assign groups according to language ability: Common language groupings could help with translation in native language. Higher learners could be grouped with students who may have difficulties.
-Prior to lesson, instructions are recorded on handheld device in native language.
-Assign a group to perform a graph to the class on the spot.
-Assign a group additional graphs for creating movement .
-Assign a group to create a different type of graph to represent their performance.


Below Basic
Graph Construction
-The graph is accurate and easily readable but also contains additional visual elements that enhance the graph's readability.
-Graph is accurate and is easily readable.
-Graph is somewhat accurate and/or readable.
-Graph is difficult to read and contains inaccuracies.
-The tempos of movements chosen match the graph and seamlessly flow from one movement to another.
-The movements selected are appropriate for the tempos identified in the graph.
-The tempos of movements match the graph.
-The movements chosen are appropriate for the tempos.
-Portions of the dance tempos follow the graph.
-Some of the movements chosen are appropriate for the tempos.
-Tempos within the dance do not follow the graph.
-The movements lack appropriateness with the tempos.
Group Interaction
-All members of the group were involved, cooperative and interacted positively with each other. Leadership and a team attitude were exemplary.
-All members of the group were involved, cooperative and interacted positively with each other.
-All members were involved. Interaction of group members was mostly positive.
-All members were not significanly involved. Interaction of members was not very positive.

Unit accommodations for students not proficient on summative task: The instructor can meet with individuals during lunch/recess to assist with areas of difficulty.
Using the critiques and instructor feedback, the groups can discuss and recreate a new on-task performance.
The instructor can reassign groups and allow the students to create a new performance.
Unit enrichments: Upon regrouping:
Assign advanced learners as leaders of separate groups to help assist with the creation of a new dance.
Group advanced learners together to create a new dance to similar data with the additions of background music, costumes and any additional embellishments.